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Birth Control Side Effects | Natural Womanhood
fertility awareness method, natural family planning, FAM, NFP, what is a fertility awareness method, what are FAMs, what is NFP, chart, charting, chart FAMs, birth control side effects, birth control alternatives, natural birth control, birth control without hormones, hormone-free birth control, women's health, sexual health, family planning, contraception, birth control, the Pill, infertility, cures for infertility, infertility treatment, natural infertility treatments, improving fertility, understanding fertility

Birth Control Side Effects

Click a topic to learn more about the following birth control side effects:

Birth control side effects

Many women dislike the idea of ingesting artificial hormones or of having devices implanted in their bodies. Increasingly, the effects of hormonal birth control and other forms of contraception on women’s health and wellbeing are becoming more evident.

Some of the side effects resulting from the use of hormonal contraceptives include:

  • loss of libido
  • rashes
  • discoloration of the skin (melasma/chloasma)
  • changes in weight or appetite
  • nausea, vomiting
  • migraines
  • mood changes, including depression
  • aggravation of varicose veins
  • gastrointestinal symptoms (pain, cramps, bloating)
  • spotting
  • vaginitis (yeast infection)
  • vitamin deficiencies
  • water retention
  • vision impairment
  • liver malfunction (jaundice)

Further, numerous studies show increased risk of cancer and increased risk of blood clots resulting from the use of hormonal contraceptives.

Thousands of lawsuits have been filed in recent years against manufacturers of various birth control pills for serious health complications suffered, including:

  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in legs)
  • Pulmonary embolism (blockages in the lungs)
  • Gallbladder disease

Likewise, thousands of women have filed claims against the manufacturers of the Mirena® IUD (intrauterine devices) for serious side effects. In general, IUDs increase risk of:

  • Ectopic pregnancy (tubal pregnancy)
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Infection
  • Displacement of the device, which can lead to serious complications.

Hundreds of women have also reported adverse reactions to the Essure® sterilization procedure, with at least 91 women having to undergo a hysterectomy as a result of damages. Users of the copper IUD Paragard® have reported symptoms of copper toxicity.

To learn more about birth control side effects, see the articles below.

Women seeking to avoid birth control side effects can learn more about fertility awareness methods as natural alternatives to pharmaceutical birth control.

Mirena, Essure are registered trademarks of Bayer. Paragard is a registered trademark of CooperSurgical, Inc.

References

Click a subtopic below to view scientific references for each of the following items and their connections to birth control use. 

CROHN’S DISEASE

Boyko EJ, Theis MK, Vaughan TL, and Nicol-Blades B. Increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease associated with oral contraceptive use. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994; 140:268–278.

Calkins BM, Mendeloff AI, and Garland C. Inflammatory bowel disease in oral contraceptive users. Gastroenterology 1986; 91: 523–524.

Cornish JA, Tan E, Simillis C, Clark SK, Teare J, and Tekkis PP. The risk of oral contraceptives in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysisAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology 2008; 103:2394–2400.

Corrao G, Tragnone A, Caprilli R, Trallori G, Papi C, Andreoli A, Di Paolo M, Riegler G, Rigo GP, Ferraù O, Mansi C, Ingrosso M, and Valpiani D. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease attributable to smoking, oral contraception and breastfeeding in Italy: a nationwide case-control study. Cooperative Investigators of the Italian Group for the Study of the Colon and the Rectum (GISC). International Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 27:397–404.

García Rodríguez LA, González-Pérez A, Johansson S, and Wallander MA. Risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease in the general populationAlimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2005; 22:309–315.

Godet PG, May GR, and Sutherland LR. Meta-analysis of the role of oral contraceptive agents in inflammatory bowel diseaseGut 1995; 37:668–673.

Halfvarson J, Jess T, Magnuson A, Montgomery SM, Orholm M, Tysk C, Binder V, and Järnerot G. Environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease: a co-twin control study of a Swedish-Danish twin population. Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2006; 12:925–933.

Han DY, Fraser AG, Dryland P, and Ferguson LR. Environmental factors in the development of chronic inflammation: a case-control study on risk factors for Crohn’s disease within New ZealandMutation Research 2010; 690:116–122.

Katschinski B. [Smoking and ovulation inhibitor in inflammatory bowel diseases]. Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany) 88 Suppl 1993; 1:5–8.

Khalili H, Higuchi LM, Ananthakrishnan AN, Richter JM, Feskanich D, Fuchs CS, and Chan AT. Oral contraceptives, reproductive factors and risk of inflammatory bowel diseaseGut 2013; 62:1153–1159.

Lashner BA, Kane SV, and Hanauer SB. Lack of association between oral contraceptive use and Crohn’s disease: a community-based matched case-control studyGastroenterology 1989; 97:1442–1447.

Lesko SM, Kaufman DW, Rosenberg L, Helmrich SP, Miller DR, Stolley PD, and Shapiro S. Evidence for an increased risk of Crohn’s disease in oral contraceptive users. Gastroenterology 1985; 89:1046–1049.

Logan RF and Kay CR. Oral contraception, smoking and inflammatory bowel disease—findings in the Royal College of General Practitioners Oral Contraception StudyInternational Journal of Epidemiology 1989; 18: 105–107.

Lowe AM, Roy PO, Poulin M, Michel P, Bitton A, St-Onge L, and Brassard P. Epidemiology of Crohn’s disease in Quebec, CanadaInflammatory Bowel Disease 2009; 15:429–435.

Ng SC, Woodrow S, Patel N, Subhani J, and Harbord M. Role of genetic and environmental factors in British twins with inflammatory bowel diseaseInflammatory Bowel Disease 2012; 18:725–736.

Persson PG, Leijonmarck CE, Bernell O, Hellers G, and Ahlbom A. Risk indicators for inflammatory bowel diseaseInternational Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 2(2):268–272.

Sandler RS, Wurzelmann JI, and Lyles CM. Oral contraceptive use and the risk of inflammatory bowel diseaseEpidemiology 1992; 3:374–378.

Vcev A, Pezerovic D, Jovanovic Z, Nakic D, Vcev I, and Majnarić L. A retrospective, case-control study on traditional environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease in Vukovar-Srijem County, north-eastern Croatia 2010Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 2015; 127:345–354.

Vessey M, Jewell D, Smith A, Yeates D, and McPherson K. Chronic inflammatory bowel disease, cigarette smoking, and use of oral contraceptives: findings in a large cohort study of women of childbearing ageBritish Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 1986; 292:1101–1113.

ULCERATIVE COLITIS

Boyko EJ, Theis MK, Vaughan TL, and Nicol-Blades B. Increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease associated with oral contraceptive useAmerican Journal of Epidemiology 1994; 140:268–278.

Calkins BM, Mendeloff AI, and Garland C. Inflammatory bowel disease in oral contraceptive usersGastroenterology 1986; 91:523–524.

Cornish JA, Tan E, Simillis C, Clark SK, Teare J, and Tekkis PP. The risk of oral contraceptives in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysisAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology 2008; 103:2394–2400.

Corrao G, Tragnone A, Caprilli R, Trallori G, Papi C, Andreoli A, Di Paolo M, Riegler G, Rigo GP, Ferraù O, Mansi C, Ingrosso M, and Valpiani D. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease attributable to smoking, oral contraception and breastfeeding in Italy: a nationwide case-control study. Cooperative Investigators of the Italian Group for the Study of the Colon and the Rectum (GISC)International Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 27:397–404.

García Rodríguez LA, González-Pérez A, Johansson S, and Wallander MA. Risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease in the general populationAlimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2005; 22:309–315.

Godet PG, May GR, and Sutherland LR. Meta-analysis of the role of oral contraceptive agents in inflammatory bowel diseaseGut 1995; 37:668–673.

Halfvarson J, Jess T, Magnuson A, Montgomery SM, Orholm M, Tysk C, Binder V, and Järnerot G. Environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease: a co-twin control study of a Swedish-Danish twin populationInflammatory Bowel Disease 2006; 12:925–933.

Khalili H, Higuchi LM, Ananthakrishnan AN, Richter JM, Feskanich D, Fuchs CS, and Chan AT. Oral contraceptives, reproductive factors and risk of inflammatory bowel diseaseGut 2013; 62:1153–1159.

Lashner BA, Kane SV, and Hanauer SB. Lack of association between oral contraceptive use and ulcerative colitisGastroenterology 1990; 99:1032–36.

Logan RF and Kay CR. Oral contraception, smoking and inflammatory bowel disease—findings in the Royal College of General Practitioners Oral Contraception StudyInternational Journal of Epidemiology 1989;18:105–107.

Ng SC, Woodrow S, Patel N, Subhani J, and Harbord M. Role of genetic and environmental factors in British twins with inflammatory bowel diseaseInflammatory Bowel Disease 2012; 18:725–736.

Parrello T, Pavia M, Angelillo IF, Monteleone G, Riegler G, Papi G, D’Incà R, Annese V, Tonelli F, Caprilli R, and Pallone F. Appendectomy is an independent protective factor for ulcerative colitis: results of a multicentre case control study. The Italian Group for the Study of the Colon and Rectum (GISC)Italian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 1997; 29:208–211.

Persson PG, Leijonmarck CE, Bernell O, Hellers G, and Ahlbom A. Risk indicators for inflammatory bowel diseaseInternational Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 22:268–272.

Sandler RS, Wurzelmann JI, and Lyles CM. Oral contraceptive use and the risk of inflammatory bowel diseaseEpidemiology 1992; 3:374–378.

Vcev A, Pezerovic D, Jovanovic Z, Nakic D, Vcev I, and Majnarić L. A retrospective, case-control study on traditional environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease in Vukovar-Srijem County, north-eastern Croatia, 2010Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 2015; 127:345–354.

Vessey M, Jewell D, Smith A, Yeates D, and McPherson K. Chronic inflammatory bowel disease, cigarette smoking, and use of oral contraceptives: findings in a large cohort study of women of childbearing age. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 1986; 292:1101–1113.

SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

Bernier MO, Mikaeloff Y, Hudson M, and Suissa S. Combined oral contraceptive use and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosusArthritis and Rheumatism 2009; 61:476–481.

Cooper GS, Dooley MA, Treadwell EL, St Clair EW, and Gilkeson GS. Hormonal and reproductive risk factors for development of systemic lupus erythematosus: results of a population-based, case-control study. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2002; 46:1830–1839.

Costenbader KH, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, and Karlson EW. Reproductive and menopausal factors and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in womenArthritis and Rheumatism 2007; 56:1251–1262.

Grimes DA, LeBolt SA, Grimes KR, and Wingo PA. Systemic lupus erythematosus and reproductive function: A case control studyAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1985; 153:179–186.

Sanchez-Guerrero J, Karlson EW, Liang MH, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE, and Colditz GA. Past use of oral contraceptives and the risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1997; 40: 804–808.

Strom BL, Reidenberg MM, West S, Snyder ES, Freundlich B, and Stolley PD. Shingles, allergies, family medical history, oral contraceptives, and other potential risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosusAmerican Journal of Epidemiology 1994; 140:632–642.

Zonana-Nacach A, Rodríguez-Guzmán LM, Jiménez-Balderas FJ, Camargo-Coronel A, Escobedo-de la Peña J, and Fraga A. [Risk factors associated with systemic lupus erythematosis in a Mexican population]. Salud Pública de México 2002; 44:213–218.

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

Alonso A, Jick SS, Olek MJ, Ascherio A, Jick H, and Hernán MA. Recent use of oral contraceptives and the risk of multiple sclerosisArchives of Neurology 2005; 62:1362–1365.

Hellwig K, Chen LH, Stancyzk FZ, and Langer-Gould AM. Oral Contraceptives and Multiple Sclerosis/Clinically Isolated Syndrome SusceptibilityPLoS One 2016; 11:e0149094. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149094.

Hernán MA, Hohol MJ, Olek MJ, Spiegelman D, and Ascherio A. Oral contraceptives and the incidence of multiple sclerosisNeurology 2000; 55:848–854.

Kotzamani D, Panou T, Mastorodemos V, Tzagournissakis M, Nikolakaki H, Spanaki C, and Plaitakis A. Rising incidence of multiple sclerosis in females associated with urbanization. Neurology 2012; 78:1728–1735.

Thorogood M, and Hannaford PC. The influence of oral contraceptives on the risk of multiple sclerosisBritish Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1998; 105:1296–1299.

Villard-Mackintosh L, and Vessey MP. Oral contraceptives and reproductive factors in multiple sclerosis incidenceContraception 1993; 47:161–168.

INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS

Champaneria R, D’Andrea RM, and Latthe PM. Hormonal contraception and pelvic floor dysfunction: a systematic review. Int Urogynecol J 2016; 27:709–722.

El Khoudary SR, Talbott EO, Bromberger JT, Chang CC, Songer TJ, and Davis EL. Severity of interstitial cystitis symptoms and quality of life in female patientsJournal of Womens Health (Larchmont) 2009; 18:1361–1368. Doi: 10.1089/jwh.2008.1270.

Gardella B, Porru D, Nappi RE, Daccò MD, Chiesa A, and Spinillo A. Interstitial cystitis is associated with vulvodynia and sexual dysfunction—a case-control studyThe Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011; 8:1726–1734. Doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02251.x. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Konkle K, Berry SH, Elliott MN, Hilton L, Suttorp MJ, Clauw DJ, and Clemens JQ. Comparison of an interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome clinical cohort with symptomatic community women from the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology studyJournal of Urology 2012; 187:508–512.

VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM

Bloemenkamp KWM, Rosendaal FR, Büller HR, Helmerhorst FM, Colly LP, and Vandenbroucke JP. Risk of venous thrombosis with use of current low-dose oral contraceptives is not explained by diagnostic suspicion and referral biasArch Intern Med 1999; 159:65–70.

Bloemenkamp KWM, Rosendaal FR, Helmerhorst FM, Büller HR, and Vandenbroucke JP. Enhancement by factor V Leiden mutation of risk of deep-vein thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives containing a third- generation progestagenLancet 1995; 346:1593–1596.

Dinger J, Assmann A, M€ohner S, and Minh TD. Risk of venous thromboembolism and the use of dienogestand drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives: results from a German case-control studyJ Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2010; 36:123–129.

Dinger J, Bardenheuer K, and Heinemann K. Cardiovascular and general safety of a 24-day regimen of drospirenonecontaining combined oral contraceptives: final results from the International Active surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral ContraceptivesContraception 2014; 89(4):253–263.

Dinger JC, Heinemann LAJ, and Ku¨hl-Habich D. The safety of a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive: final results from the European Active Surveillance study on oral contraceptives based on 142,475 women years of observationContraception 2007; 75:344–354.

Farmer RDT, Lawrenson RA, Thompson CR, Kennedy JG, and Hambleton IR. Population-based study of risk of venous thromboembolism associated with various oral contraceptivesLancet 1997; 349:83–88.

Food and Drug Administration, Office of surveillance and epidemiology. Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) and the risk of cardiovascular disease endpoints. FDA. 2011; http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/UCM277384.pdf.

Gomer K. Women, Birth Control Pills, and Thrombophilia: An Analysis of Risk Communication Kerry Gomer, Clemson University. 2009; https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1573&context=all_theses.

Gronich N, Lavi I, and Rennert G. Higher risk of venous thrombosis associated with drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives: a population-based cohort studyCMAJ 2011; 183(18):E1319-25.

Jick H, Jick SS, Gurewich V, Myers MW, and Vasilakis C. Risk of ideopathic cardiovascular death and nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives with differing progestagen componentsLancet 1995; 346:1589-1593.

Jick SS, and Hernandez RK. Risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel: case-control study using United States claims dataBritish Medical Journal 2011; 340:d2151.

Keenan L, Kerr T, Duane M, and Van Gundy K. Systematic Review of Hormonal Contraception and Risk of Venous ThrombosisThe Linacre Quarterly 2018; 85(4):470–477.

Le Moigne E, Delluc A, Tromeur C, Nowak E, Mottier D, Lacut K, and Le Gal G. Risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism among young women after a first event while exposed to combined oral contraception versus not exposed to: a cohort studyThromb Res 2013; 132:51–55.

Lewis MA, MacRae KD, Kűhl-Habich D, Bruppacher R, Heinemann LA, and Spitzer WO. The differential risk of oral contraceptives: the impact of full exposure historyHum Re prod 1999; 14:1493–1499.

Lidegaard Ø, Edstr€om B, and Kreiner S. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism. A five-year national case-control studyContraception 2002; 65:187–196.

Lidegaard Ø, Løkkegaard E, Svendsen AL, and Agger C. Hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism: national follow-up studyBritish Medical Journal 2009; 339:b2890.

Lidegaard Ø, Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, and Løkkegaard E. Venous thrombosis in users of non-oral hormonal contraception: follow-up study, Denmark 2001–10British Medical Journal 2012; 344:e2990.

Lidegaard Ø,Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, Skjeldestad FE, and Løkkegaard E. Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and estrogen doses: Danish cohort study 2001–2009British Medical Journal 2011; 343:d6423.

[19] Lidegaard Ø. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2014; 13:1353–360.

Parkin L, Sharples K, Hernandez RK, and Jick SS. Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone or levonorgestrel: nested case-control study based on UK General Practice Research DatabaseBritish Medical Journal 2011; 340:d2139.

Parkin L, Skegg DCG, Wilson M, Herbison GP, and Paul C. Oral contraceptives and fatal pulmonary embolismLancet 2000; 355:2133–2134.

Peck R and Norris CW. Significant Risks of Oral Contraceptives (OCPs) Linacre Q 2012; 79(1): 41–56. Published online 2012 Feb 1. Doi: 10.1179/002436312803571447.

Phillippe HM, Hornsby LB, Treadway S, Armstrong EM, and Bellone JM. Inherited thrombophiliaJ Pharm Pract 2014; 27:227–233.

Spitzer WO, Lewis MA, Heinemann LAJ, Thorogood M, and MacRae KD. Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolic disorders: an international case-control studyBritish Medical Journal 1996; 312:83-88.

Todd J-C, Lawrenson R, Farmer RDT, Williams TJ, and Leydon GM. Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: a re-analysis of the MediPlus databaseHum Reprod 1999; 14:1500–1505.

Van Hylckama VA, Helmerhorst FM, Vandenbroucke JP, Doggen CJ, and Rosendaal FR. The Venous Thrombotic Risk of Oral Contraceptives, Effects of Estrogen Dose and Progestogen Type: Results of the MEGA Case-Control StudyBritish Medical Journal 2009; 339:b2921. Doi:10.1136/bmj.b2921.

Vinogradova Y, Coupland C and Hippisley-Cox J. Use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databasesBritish Medical Journal 2015; 350:h2135. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h2135 (Published 26 May 2015).

World Health Organisation Collaborative Study on Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception. Effect of different progestogens in low estrogen oral contraceptives on venous thromboembolic diseaseLancet 1995; 346:1582–1588.

World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception. Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: results of international multicentre case-control studyLancet 1995; 346:1575-1582.

Yasmin Prescribing Information: Highlights of Yasmin Prescription Information, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/021098s019lbl.pdf.

ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS

Bagdade JD and Subbaiah PV. Serum from Oral Contraceptive Users Stimulates Growth of Arterial Smooth Muscle CellsAHA Journals, Arteriosclerosis 1982; 2(2):170–176.

Beral V. Cardiovascular disease mortality trends and oral contraceptive use in young womenLancet 1976; 2:1047–1052.

Fallah S, Nouroozi V, Seifi M, Samadikuchaksaraei A, and Aghdashi EM. Influence of oral contraceptive pills on homocysteine and nitric oxide levels: as risk factors for cardiovascular diseaseJ Clin Lab Anal 2012; 26:120–123.

Hennekens CH, and MacMahon B. Oral contraceptive and myocardial infarctionEngl J Med 1977; 296:1166–1167.

Hickson SS, Miles KL, McDonnell BJ, Yasmin, Cockcroft JR, Wilkinson IB, McEniery CM; ENIGMA Study Investigators. Use of the oral contraceptive pill is associated with increased large artery stiffness in young women: the ENIGMA studyHypertens 2011; 29(6):1155–1159.

Heidarzadeh Z, Asadi B, Saadatnia M, Ghorbani A, and Fatehi F. The Effect of Low-dose Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills on Brachial Artery Endothelial Function and Common Carotid Artery Intima–Media ThicknessJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2014; 23:675–680.

Lidegaard Ø, Løkkegaard E, Jensen A, Skovlund CW, and Keiding N. Thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction with hormonal contraceptionEngl J Med 2012; 366:2257–2266.

Priest SE, Shenouda N, and MacDonald MJ. Effect of sex, menstrual cycle phase, and monophasic oral contraceptive pill use on local and central arterial stiffness in young adultsAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018; 315(2):H357-H365.

BREAST CANCER

Adams-Campbell LL, Makambi KH, Frederick WA, Gaskins M, Dewitty RL, and McCaskill-Stevens W. Breast cancer risk assessments comparing Gail and CARE models in African-American womenBreast J. 15 Suppl 2009; 1:S72–75.

Amadou A, Fabre A, Torres-Mejía G, Ortega-Olvera C, Angeles-Llerenas A, McKenzie F, Biessy C, Hainaut P, and Romieu I. Hormonal therapy and risk of breast cancer in Mexican womenPLoS One 2013; 8:e79695.

Beaber EF, Buist DS, Barlow WE, Malone KE, Reed SD, and Li CI. Recent oral contraceptive use by formulation and breast cancer risk among women 20 to 49 years of ageCancer Res 2014a; 74:4078–4089.

Beaber EF, Malone KE, Tang MT, Barlow WE, Porter PL, Daling JR, and Li CI. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk overall and by molecular subtype among young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2014b; 23:755–764.

Beji NK and Reis N. Risk factors for breast cancer in Turkish women: a hospital-based case-control studyEur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2007; 16:178–184.

Bethea TN, Rosenberg L, Hong CC, Troester MA, Lunetta KL, Bandera EV, Schedin P, Kolonel LN, Olshan AF, Ambrosone CB, and Palmer JR. A case-control analysis of oral contraceptive use and breast cancer subtypes in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk ConsortiumBreast Cancer Res 2015; 17:22. Doi:10.1186/s13058-015-0535-x.

Brohet RM, Goldgar DE, Easton DF, Antoniou AC, Andrieu N, Chang-Claude J, Peock S, Eeles RA, Cook M, Chu C, Noguès C, Lasset C, Berthet P, Meijers-Heijboer H, Gerdes AM, Olsson H, Caldes T, van Leeuwen FE, and Rookus MA. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study: a report from EMBRACE, GENEPSO, GEO-HEBON, and the IBCCS Collaborating GroupJ Clin Oncol 2007; 25:3831–3836.

Delort L, Kwiatkowski F, Chalabi N, Satih S, Bignon YJ, and Bernard-Gallon DJ. Risk factors for early age at breast cancer onset—the “COSA program” population-based studyAnticancer Res 2007; 27:1087–1094.

Dolle JM, Daling JR, White E, Brinton LA, Doody DR, Porter PL, and Malone KE. Risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45 yearsCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18:1157–1166.

Figueiredo JC, Haile RW, Bernstein L, Malone KE, Largent J, Langholz B, Lynch CF, Bertelsen L, Capanu M, Concannon P, Borg A, Børresen-Dale AL, Diep A, Teraoka S, Torngren T, Xue S, and Bernstein JL. Oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones and risk of contralateral breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and noncarriers: the WECARE StudyBreast Cancer Res Treat 2010; 120:175–183.

Folger SG, Marchbanks PA, McDonald JA, Bernstein L, Ursin G, Berlin JA, Daling JR, Norman SA, Strom BL, Weiss LK, Simon MS, Burkman RT, Malone KE, and Spirtas R. Risk of breast cancer associated with short-term use of oral contraceptivesCancer Causes Control 2007; 18:189–198.

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