Web Analytics Made Easy -
StatCounter
Blood clots and Birth control | Natural Womanhood

Blood clots

Birth Control Side Effects Blood clots

Data shows that contraceptive drugs increase the risk of blood clots. Proponents for hormonal birth control argue that the increased risk in young women was a small risk to start with (between 1 and 5 of every 10,000 women), and that the increase isn’t drastic (between 3 and 9 of every 10,000). Not all forms of hormonal birth control have been shown to increase the risk of blood clots—just those that contain estrogen or certain types of progestin, which happen to be among the most popular. They include the Pill, Beyaz, Yasmin, Yaz, NuvaRing, Xulane, and Nexplanon.

Some compare the risk of blood clots while on birth control to the risk of blood clots that a woman has while pregnant or postpartum. It’s noted that the natural increase in estrogen that occurs during pregnancy and the postpartum period is much greater than what one experiences on birth control, and thus the risk of blood clots is much more elevated while pregnant or postpartum (between 5 and 20 of every 10,000 pregnant women, and 40 to 65 of every 10,000 postpartum women). First, it’s odd to compare the risks of birth control to risks inherent in pregnancy, considering one is a natural physical process and the other is the side effect of a drug—a drug that can expose women to the increased risk for blood clots for as long as she uses birth control, which could be for many years in a row. Second, the estrogen contained within hormonal contraceptives is synthetic, and not the same as naturally occurring, endogenous estrogen.

A recent study by Lucine Health Sciences shows that risk factors for clots caused by hormonal contraceptives have likely been underestimated. As we’ve seen in recent years, women on birth control are most certainly at risk for blood clots. The study also reveals that medical professionals do not always screen thoroughly for factors that can cause blood clotsfactors that can lead to serious risk. 

By increasing the risk of blood clots, stroke, and heart attack, hormonal contraception leads to the death of 300-400 women every year. To give some perspective, meningitis killed forty-five people in 2017. Most states mandate meningitis vaccination for college and university students. Would they consider the same kind of prevention campaigns for the deadly blood clots caused by hormonal birth control?

References

Click a subtopic below to view scientific references for each of the following and their connections to birth control use.

Bloemenkamp KWM, Rosendaal FR, Büller HR, Helmerhorst FM, Colly LP, and Vandenbroucke JP. Risk of venous thrombosis with use of current low-dose oral contraceptives is not explained by diagnostic suspicion and referral biasArch Intern Med 1999; 159:65–70.

Bloemenkamp KWM, Rosendaal FR, Helmerhorst FM, Büller HR, and Vandenbroucke JP. Enhancement by factor V Leiden mutation of risk of deep-vein thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives containing a third- generation progestagenLancet 1995; 346:1593–1596.

Dinger J, Assmann A, M€ohner S, and Minh TD. Risk of venous thromboembolism and the use of dienogestand drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives: results from a German case-control studyJ Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2010; 36:123–129.

Dinger J, Bardenheuer K, and Heinemann K. Cardiovascular and general safety of a 24-day regimen of drospirenonecontaining combined oral contraceptives: final results from the International Active surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral ContraceptivesContraception 2014; 89(4):253–263.

Dinger JC, Heinemann LAJ, and Ku¨hl-Habich D. The safety of a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive: final results from the European Active Surveillance study on oral contraceptives based on 142,475 women years of observationContraception 2007; 75:344–354.

Farmer RDT, Lawrenson RA, Thompson CR, Kennedy JG, and Hambleton IR. Population-based study of risk of venous thromboembolism associated with various oral contraceptivesLancet 1997; 349:83–88.

Food and Drug Administration, Office of surveillance and epidemiology. Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) and the risk of cardiovascular disease endpoints. FDA. 2011; http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/UCM277384.pdf.

Gomer K. Women, Birth Control Pills, and Thrombophilia: An Analysis of Risk Communication Kerry Gomer, Clemson University. 2009; https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1573&context=all_theses.

Gronich N, Lavi I, and Rennert G. Higher risk of venous thrombosis associated with drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives: a population-based cohort studyCMAJ 2011; 183(18):E1319-25.

Jick H, Jick SS, Gurewich V, Myers MW, and Vasilakis C. Risk of ideopathic cardiovascular death and nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives with differing progestagen componentsLancet 1995; 346:1589-1593.

Jick SS, and Hernandez RK. Risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel: case-control study using United States claims dataBritish Medical Journal 2011; 340:d2151.

Keenan L, Kerr T, Duane M, and Van Gundy K. Systematic Review of Hormonal Contraception and Risk of Venous ThrombosisThe Linacre Quarterly 2018; 85(4):470–477.

Le Moigne E, Delluc A, Tromeur C, Nowak E, Mottier D, Lacut K, and Le Gal G. Risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism among young women after a first event while exposed to combined oral contraception versus not exposed to: a cohort studyThromb Res 2013; 132:51–55.

Lewis MA, MacRae KD, Kűhl-Habich D, Bruppacher R, Heinemann LA, and Spitzer WO. The differential risk of oral contraceptives: the impact of full exposure historyHum Re prod 1999; 14:1493–1499.

Lidegaard Ø, Edstr€om B, and Kreiner S. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism. A five-year national case-control studyContraception 2002; 65:187–196.

Lidegaard Ø, Løkkegaard E, Svendsen AL, and Agger C. Hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism: national follow-up studyBritish Medical Journal 2009; 339:b2890.

Lidegaard Ø, Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, and Løkkegaard E. Venous thrombosis in users of non-oral hormonal contraception: follow-up study, Denmark 2001–10British Medical Journal 2012; 344:e2990.

Lidegaard Ø,Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, Skjeldestad FE, and Løkkegaard E. Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and estrogen doses: Danish cohort study 2001–2009British Medical Journal 2011; 343:d6423.

[19] Lidegaard Ø. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age. Expert Opin Drug Saf2014; 13:1353–360.

Parkin L, Sharples K, Hernandez RK, and Jick SS. Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone or levonorgestrel: nested case-control study based on UK General Practice Research DatabaseBritish Medical Journal 2011; 340:d2139.

Parkin L, Skegg DCG, Wilson M, Herbison GP, and Paul C. Oral contraceptives and fatal pulmonary embolismLancet 2000; 355:2133–2134.

Peck R and Norris CW. Significant Risks of Oral Contraceptives (OCPs) Linacre Q 2012; 79(1): 41–56. Published online 2012 Feb 1. Doi: 10.1179/002436312803571447.

Phillippe HM, Hornsby LB, Treadway S, Armstrong EM, and Bellone JM. Inherited thrombophiliaJ Pharm Pract2014; 27:227–233.

Spitzer WO, Lewis MA, Heinemann LAJ, Thorogood M, and MacRae KD. Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolic disorders: an international case-control studyBritish Medical Journal 1996; 312:83-88.

Todd J-C, Lawrenson R, Farmer RDT, Williams TJ, and Leydon GM. Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: a re-analysis of the MediPlus databaseHum Reprod1999; 14:1500–1505.

Van Hylckama VA, Helmerhorst FM, Vandenbroucke JP, Doggen CJ, and Rosendaal FR. The Venous Thrombotic Risk of Oral Contraceptives, Effects of Estrogen Dose and Progestogen Type: Results of the MEGA Case-Control StudyBritish Medical Journal 2009; 339:b2921. Doi:10.1136/bmj.b2921.

Vinogradova Y, Coupland C and Hippisley-Cox J. Use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databasesBritish Medical Journal 2015; 350:h2135. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h2135 (Published 26 May 2015).

World Health Organisation Collaborative Study on Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception. Effect of different progestogens in low estrogen oral contraceptives on venous thromboembolic diseaseLancet 1995; 346:1582–1588.

World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception. Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: results of international multicentre case-control studyLancet 1995; 346:1575-1582.

Yasmin Prescribing Information: Highlights of Yasmin Prescription Information, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/021098s019lbl.pdf.

Bagdade JD and Subbaiah PV. Serum from Oral Contraceptive Users Stimulates Growth of Arterial Smooth Muscle CellsAHA Journals, Arteriosclerosis 1982; 2(2):170–176.

Beral V. Cardiovascular disease mortality trends and oral contraceptive use in young womenLancet 1976; 2:1047–1052.

Fallah S, Nouroozi V, Seifi M, Samadikuchaksaraei A, and Aghdashi EM. Influence of oral contraceptive pills on homocysteine and nitric oxide levels: as risk factors for cardiovascular diseaseJ Clin Lab Anal 2012; 26:120–123.

Hennekens CH, and MacMahon B. Oral contraceptive and myocardial infarctionEngl J Med 1977; 296:1166–1167.

Hickson SS, Miles KL, McDonnell BJ, Yasmin, Cockcroft JR, Wilkinson IB, McEniery CM; ENIGMA Study Investigators. Use of the oral contraceptive pill is associated with increased large artery stiffness in young women: the ENIGMA studyHypertens2011; 29(6):1155–1159.

Heidarzadeh Z, Asadi B, Saadatnia M, Ghorbani A, and Fatehi F. The Effect of Low-dose Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills on Brachial Artery Endothelial Function and Common Carotid Artery Intima–Media ThicknessJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2014; 23:675–680.

Lidegaard Ø, Løkkegaard E, Jensen A, Skovlund CW, and Keiding N. Thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction with hormonal contraceptionEngl J Med 2012; 366:2257–2266.

Priest SE, Shenouda N, and MacDonald MJ. Effect of sex, menstrual cycle phase, and monophasic oral contraceptive pill use on local and central arterial stiffness in young adultsAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018; 315(2):H357-H365.

For more information on blood clots and birth control, see the articles below.

Articles on Blood clots

View related articles
Copyright © 2021 Natural Womanhood